Cryptonote Là Gì


The CryptoNote protocol, the chip core of the Monero và of many other altcoins, is an protocol focused on the anonymity of transactions recorded on the blockchain.

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It has used by of, including Electroneum, Aeon, ByteCoin, Turtlecoin and many others. In particular, it has appreciated for its Proof of Work, which was immune to ASICs until last year.

The CryptoNote protocol mechanisms lớn guarantee the privacy & therefore the anonymity of transactions and wallets.

The CryptoNote philosophy

The CryptoNote protocol was born in 2013 after years of by a team of mathematicians và programmers. It’s a completely technology that allows for the creation of egalitarian with completely anonymous blockchains.

The goal of the original team was to offer the world a tool, completely anonymous, secure and egalitarian, therefore without discrimination of the that execute the Proof of Work.

Unlike the of the blockchain of bitcoin and other, CryptoNote uses additional tools to achieve the results.

Ring signature: untraceable systems for verifying digital signatures require the use of the public key of the of the transaction. This condition is necessary khổng lồ verify that the tác giả is in possession of the corresponding chất lượng private key.

The Ring signature verification mechanism, on the other hand, requires that all transactions be signed on behalf of the group to lớn which the individuals belong. In this way, during the verification process it is practically impossible to lớn trace back to lớn the original creator, since all the signatures of the members of the group are indistinguishable from each other.

The of the transaction will be the only one able to collect the transaction, using the private key and the mathematical concept of an image – which is public – associated with it.

So, if there is a ring signature that includes the public keys of Alice, Bob and Carol, the verification mechanism can only declare that one of them has signed the message, but is not able to lớn specify who. This concept can be used to lớn digital transactions on a network untraceable. The public keys of the other members will be used for verification, as one & only one of them will confirm the transaction, i.e. The’s transaction.

This approach that the creator of the transaction is able lớn the amount specified in the transaction while keeping the indistinguishable from other users, whose public keys were used in the verification phase of the ring signature.

It is worth noting that foreign transactions vày not restrict the user’s ability lớn their money.

The public key, in fact, can appear in of ring signatures to showroom redundancy, if the user has already used the private key to confirm a transaction.

Moreover, if two users were khổng lồ create a ring signature with the same set of public keys, the signatures would be, unless they had the same private key, but it would be a paradox as it would mean that the user is actually only one. Verification

A completely anonymous signature system would allow users to the same funds several times. This complication is not in line with the principles of digital systems. The problem, known as, can be solved in the following way.

A ring signature system is a type of that has functions. The one used in CryptoNote requires the use of a modified version of the traceable Ring signature.

In fact, traceability is transformed into linkability. This property restricts the anonymity of the user in the following way: if the creates more than one ring signature using the same private key (foreign public keys are irrelevant), they would be connected, thus stopping a attempt.

To introduce the concept of linkability, CryptoNote has introduced a particular indicator created by the user at first access. This indicator is, in mathematical terms, the image of the private key, obtained through a one-way cryptographic function (a classic hashing function).

The term “one-way” indicates that using only the image it is practically impossible khổng lồ recover the original private key (irreversible function).

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Another advantage is that it is practically impossible lớn have a collision two keys sharing the same image. Using any mathematical function, with the exception of the specified one, will result in an unverifiable signature.

Considering all the above concepts, it is possible khổng lồ conclude that the image of the key is a practically inviolable & unambiguous indicator of the private key.

All users are in possession of the list of images of the keys used and can immediately reject any new ring signature with a duplicate image. This will avoid any attempt at but will not allow the user lớn be behaving inappropriately. As opposed khổng lồ the danh sách of all transactions, this mechanism requires much less storage space.

Single-use keys and untraceable transactions

Usually, the key is published, anyone can check incoming transactions, if by a ring signature. To avoid this problem it is possible khổng lồ create hundreds of keys to lớn be privately khổng lồ users, but this deprives the user of the possibility of having a single public address.

CryptoNote solves this problem by automatically creating keys that can only be used once. They are for each on the peer-to-peer network using the public keys. This solution is nothing more than a new version of the Diffie-Hellman protocol.

The original version of the protocol allowed two parties khổng lồ produce a common secret key from their respective public keys. In CryptoNote, the uses the’s public key và some random data lớn a disposable key khổng lồ be used for

The can only the public part of the key, while the private part is computed by the Therefore, the is the only one who can collect the funds after the transaction has actually All the has to vì is perform a short check of the transactions to lớn see whether they are for him/her or not. However, this process involves the private key, which means that no external user can perform the verification & discover the liên kết the disposable key and the public address of the

The use of random data for address means that they are all though they have the same và This is why they are defined as single-use.

Resistance lớn user tracking on the blockchain

Since the blockchain is a distributed ledger, there are tools for analysing transactions that make it possible khổng lồ trace the of the authors. This characteristic of the bitcoin blockchain & other is due khổng lồ the fact that not all users new addresses for each transaction.

CryptoNote, using the mechanisms explained above, is practically immune khổng lồ this as all addresses can only be used once., an analysis tool is unable to lớn the and the, as the output đầu ra shows hundreds of possible paths. These paths can be grouped in a tree graph consisting of a multitude of branches và nodes that make it impossible khổng lồ trace back to the

It should be noted that over the years Monero has continuous to its protocol, improving the scalability, privacy & performance of the network.

Scheme of a CryptoNote transaction


Egalitarian Proof of Work

The Proof of Work mechanism adopted by CryptoNote is nothing more than an egalitarian voting system. Users vote for the correct order of transactions, lớn new features of the protocol or to get fair & honest remuneration.

For this reason, it is important that during this process all participants have the same right & ability khổng lồ vote. The CryptoNote mechanism allows obtaining equality through a Proof of Work function, perfectly suited for ordinary PCs. It uses the instructions of modern CPUs, which are difficult và to in ASICs or specific products with fast or memories.

The memory algorithm for the egalitarian function takes advantage of random access to memory and emphasises As opposed to lớn Scrypt, each new block (64 bytes long) on all the previous blocks. This means that any mechanisms to reduce memory use must increase the computational speed.

This algorithm requires about 2 MB of memory for each instance because of the following reasons:

It can be contained in the L3 caches of modern processors;GPUs can run or hundreds of threads but will be limited by GDDR5/6 memory, which is significantly slower in random access than L3 CPU caches despite high bandwidth;A significant expansion of the scratchpad would require an increase in interactions. This would involve an increase in the time required. Continuous and prolonged calls lớn the p2p network could, therefore, compromise the network & lead to some vulnerabilities, as the nodes are forced khổng lồ perform a PoW kiểm tra of each block. If a node a considerable amount of time on the hash of a block, it could easily be overwhelmed by a flooding mechanism of false blocks causing a DDoS.

One of the Proof of Work algorithms used for CryptoNote mining is CryptoNight, created by Bytecoin developers in collaboration with the CryptoNote team.

It is designed khổng lồ similar in both CPU và GPU mining. It was designed lớn be immune khổng lồ ASICs, but last year giants such as Bitmain and Baikal announced the first devices capable of mining coins based on CryptoNight.

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CryptoNote protocol sources and are available on the official page.